In 2019, the World Health Organization recognized the question of vaccination of one of 10 global threats to humanity. Opponents of vaccinations are very active in the network — they create chat rooms, blogs and groups in social networks, promote their ideas on popular parent sites. AIF correspondent. ru a month was in the anti-vaccine chat and groups, gathered the most popular arguments there and asked the expert what was true of it.
Biologist, author of the popular vaccination blog Instagram.com/ninavaccina Antonina Oblasova commented on AiF. ru popular myths about vaccinations.
1. If you look at the statistics, then the mostly vaccinated people, but not unvaccinated people, are ill with controlled infections.
If you look at the statistics, we see that the vaccinated are much more than the unvaccinated.
Take a simple example. 1000 people study at school, 95% of them (950 people) are vaccinated against measles, and 5% are not (50 people).
We know that the effectiveness of the vaccine is not 100%. About 2–5% of those vaccinated do not respond to the vaccine properly. It turns out that they are vaccinated, but do not have immunity and are susceptible to infection. Take the worst case 95 × 0.05 = 48 susceptible people among those vaccinated.
There is a flash at school. Who is sick?
Most likely, everyone who has no immunity will fall ill. And it turns out that both the vaccinated and the unvaccinated suffer “equally” in the number of people.
However, as a percentage, 5% of the vaccinated and 100% of the unvaccinated will suffer. This is a very rough calculation, since there will be children vaccinated with only one dose, there will be children with purchased certificates that are vaccinated according to the documents, but in fact there will be children with different concentrations of antibodies in the blood.
It is important to understand that if an infection is caught by a person who does not have specific immunity to this pathogen, then it is like weed seeds that fell into black soil. They germinate quickly and begin to multiply, filling all around. Faced with such an abundant source, even those who have developed immunity for a vaccine will be able to get sick — just the amount of antibodies turned out to be small enough to cope with the infectious load.
Vaccinated and unvaccinated, equally in contact with such a source, will have completely different course of the disease. In the vaccinated part of the infectious dose of the virus will be neutralized by existing antibodies and plants for the production of new antibodies will quickly start operating. And the unvaccinated will receive a full dose, and while his immune system becomes rickety, he will have time to learn all the delights of the disease.
2. The risk of getting a post-vaccination complication is higher than the risk of meeting with one of the infections that are being vaccinated. For example, tetanus, if you live in the city.
Vaccines are victims of their own effectiveness. In a world where the majority are vaccinated, it seems that the risk of encountering an infection is very low. But we forget that vaccination coverage and the likelihood of meeting an infection are dependent values! If coverage falls to a threshold, then the risk of meeting the infection will immediately increase. In addition, we travel a lot, and people from other countries come to our country.
Tetanus and in the city can be infected. Here, too, there is soil, and so on. Imported, cars that bring soil on the wheels from the countryside. Losing vigilance can cause serious consequences that are easily prevented by timely vaccination.
3. Diseases that are considered to be defeated due to vaccination — measles, smallpox, diphtheria, and so on — disappeared not because of vaccinations, but because of changes in the conditions in which people live: hygiene, availability of running water, and sewage.
Hygiene and sanitation are factors that influence “dirty hand diseases” — intestinal infections like cholera. Here their role is unconditional!
Most infections in the national calendar are anthroponoses. These are infections that are transmitted from person to person. In measles and diphtheria, airborne transmission is the same as in most other vaccine calendar infections. This means that the role of hygiene in their distribution is small. Of course, it is better to wash hands and face during the flu season after the metro, this will reduce the risk of getting sick, but it will not prevent infection if someone sneezes next to you and you breathe in the infection.
There are still transmissible infections — vectors are blood-sucking arthropods. For example, typhus and plague. Did you know that there is a vaccine for these infections? And she is! But make it to those who are relevant.
Vaccination, hygiene and isolation of patients (quarantine) is a set of measures to contain diseases, but hygiene alone is not sufficient to eradicate anthroponotic infections.
In developed countries, where hygiene is good, vaccination against intestinal infections is not included in the national calendar. But if you are traveling to a country where such diseases are common, then you should protect yourself.
4. Measles is a disease that does not require treatment, it is not more severe than the common cold. It goes by itself without going to doctors, but it gives a lifelong strong immunity, whereas vaccinations do not provide this level of protection. The measles transferred in childhood even strengthens the general immunity of the child.
Vaccinations for light diseases, comparable in severity to the common cold, do not, as they are not dangerous. But the disease with a decent mortality rate and complications from which there is no treatment — candidates for the development of a vaccine.
About 1 in 1,000 measles cases die. According to the latest WHO measles situation report, the death rate was 0.89 per 1000 cases.
When measles is possible complications associated with the work of the central nervous system, respiratory system and gastrointestinal tract. Among them: laryngitis, croup (laryngeal stenosis), tracheobronchitis, otitis media, primary measles pneumonia, secondary bacterial pneumonia, acute measles encephalitis, hepatitis, lymphadenitis, mesenteric lymphadenitis. A rather rare complication (5−10 cases per 1 000 000) — subacute sclerosing panencephalitis — may occur with a delay of up to 27 years after suffering the disease. It is characterized by progressive deterioration of the intellect, convulsions and death.
Measles does not strengthen the immune system.
On the contrary, there is such a thing as "the paradox of measles" — is to suppress the immunity of the sick (because measles affects the cells of the immune system).
This increases the likelihood of the accession of secondary bacterial infections and complications, causes temporary immunodeficiency. Moreover, it leads to “immune amnesia” — loss of immunity to previously suffered diseases and vaccinations!
Post-vaccination immunity is weaker than post-infection, but with vaccination, it is possible to achieve an immune response sufficient to prevent infection, such as, for example, measles and chickenpox, or to reduce the number of severe and fatal forms, as is the case with vaccination against tuberculosis.
5. The measles virus is so good for the body that it is used in the treatment of cancer.
A story about the measles virus, supposedly curing cancer, like many other myths, is the result of misunderstood information. Scientists are developing a special method of treating certain types of cancer based on a genetically modified measles vaccine virus. It's not about wild measles, not about the disease. And about an experimental method of treatment. But opponents of vaccination omit important details, distort the meaning and wishful thinking.
6. If Rospotrebnadzor has not yet announced a measles epidemic in Russia, it means that the situation is quite safe, and everything else is “alarm bells from alarmists.”
The task of Rospotrebnadzor is not to clean up the epidemic, but to do everything to prevent it. By responding in a timely manner, possible consequences can be prevented. So while we have “the threat of an epidemic” and the corresponding measures — orders have been issued about “mop-up vaccination”, unvaccinated for measles in regions with poor epidemics. access to educational institutions is limited.
7. A child with good immunity will not get sick when meeting with a virus, so it’s better not to do vaccinations, but to strengthen your health.
The child after birth is not immune to infectious diseases. He has only an immune system — a plant for the production of immunity. Take the same measles. 9 out of 10 people who came into contact with measles will also get sick. 90%! Do we have that, 90% of people have problems with immunity? No, it's just such a disease. Good health is great, but vaccination is an ally of a healthy lifestyle.
The child’s immune system becomes familiar with information about infections that are dangerous to the baby in safe, controlled conditions, and trains. And when he meets a real infection, he immediately knows what to do.
8. If vaccines protect against controlled infections, why do people who refuse vaccination receive such criticism? Whom do the vaccinated fear if they are protected by vaccinations?
Any opponent of vaccination will tell you that "the vaccinated are sick too." Returning to the answer to question No. 1, we can recall that not everyone who is vaccinated forms immunity. Depending on the effectiveness of the vaccine, 2–5% (sometimes more) are vaccinated, but not immune. This is inevitable, which does not affect the situation if almost everyone is vaccinated.
And then there are those who cannot be vaccinated (by age, state of health, etc.). They also have no immunity. They are vulnerable. But if the non-immune stratum begins to grow at the expense of those who refuse for no reason, then more targets appear in the community for infection.
A person without immunity to infection is a fertile soil for its reproduction, the formation of its new source and its rapid spread.
As a result, those who do not have immunity for an objective reason are at risk.
This is how collective immunity works.
9. Vaccinations cause autism. No wonder Robert De Niro financed a film about it.
The film was produced by the channel Autism Media.
The director of the film is Andrew Wakefield, a very famous character who became the father of the myth of the relationship of vaccination and autism.
The Wakefield study (1998), which served as the basis for this misconception, was withdrawn in 2010, and the author was removed from the medical register in the United Kingdom the same year because of ethical violations related to his unfair research and personal financial interest.
The premiere of the film was to be held in 2016 at the Tribeca Film Festival, but it was the subject of public protest and widespread criticism.
Actor Robert De Niro, who was one of the founders of the festival, initially defended the decision to show the film. He wrote on Facebook that the film was “very personal” for him, since he has a child with autism, and that the film can start a dialogue about the problem. But shortly before the show, De Niro announced that the film would not be shown. According to him, consultations with other representatives of the film festival and representatives of the scientific community led him to the conclusion that the film would not contribute to the discussion that the actor had hoped for.
Total — another bike with bits of truth, turned inside out.
10. Whooping cough easily treated with vitamin C
All studies on the use of vitamin C in whooping cough were carried out before 1953, and, despite the fact that a great amount of research is now being conducted on the use of vitamin C in various pathologies, most of them are with negative results.
No new data on the use of vitamin C in whooping cough over the past 60 years has not been published.
The risk of using those vitamin C dosages offered by alternative medicine for the treatment of whooping cough (including those forms of vitamin C that they offer) may significantly exceed the intended benefits of its use.
The disease itself is extremely unpleasant. It is hard to imagine parents who will be able to easily observe a very strong cough with emetic urging from their child, which also lasts about 100 days.
In modern guidelines for the treatment of pertussis, treatment with vitamin C does not appear, so vaccination is the only way to protect against this disease. Preventing is always better than curing.
11. Chickenpox must be recovered, preferably as soon as possible. Vaccinations against chickenpox do not protect — many vaccinated are ill.
Chickenpox vaccinations are very effective. Vaccinated with a single dose have about 15-20% of the probability of the so-called "breakthrough infection" in the form of a disease with mild symptoms (less than 50 rashes). Vaccinated twice — less than 2%. The course of a full-fledged illness can be very difficult and unforeseen.
Another argument in favor of vaccination is that the varicella-zoster virus after an illness persists in the body for life and can make itself felt in the future in the form of shingles, an extremely unpleasant disease. Vaccination eliminates the carriage of wild virus.
We can say that if vaccination is not available to you, then it is better to have chickenpox at the age of 2−5 years. But if vaccination is available and you can not get sick, then it is better not to get sick.
12. If you are breastfeeding and you have antibodies to the virus, then the baby will also be protected from the virus. Therefore, for the period of breastfeeding vaccinations are not needed.
After an illness (and after vaccination) a person forms an immunity. For most infections, it can be measured by determining the concentration of antibodies to this infection of the infected / vaccinated blood. These are class G immunoglobulins (IgG).
Mom intrauterinely transfers her so-called transplacental antibodies to her baby. This is a passive immunity that gradually fades away.
Antibodies to whooping cough by 3 months of life are no longer determined, and chickenpox and measles antibodies will live a little longer, from 6 to 9 months. Therefore, during breastfeeding, the baby can actually be protected by maternal immunity, but not because of mother's milk. Alas, a person practically does not penetrate IgG antibodies into milk, and a child does not have receptors for them in the digestive tract so that they can get from the digestive tract into its bloodstream!
In milk, the concentration of antibodies of another class, IgA, is quite high. This is "mucosal immunity." If (God forbid) mom runs into sick chickenpox during HB, the virus inhales and it contacts with the mucous membranes of the mucous membranes (nose, mouth, eyes …), then these “border guards” will start producing IgA that will pass into breast milk . With milk, the child will receive an "antidote" that will neutralize the chickenpox virus in his gastrointestinal tract. But this is not 100% protection, but only help, support, and not a replacement for vaccination.
13. Vaccines contain many chemicals and heavy metals, such as mercury and aluminum, which are themselves immunosuppressive.
The question of vaccine composition is one of the hottest. He is demonized, giving out incredible generalizations. The main thing to understand is that all vaccines have a different composition.
The same mercury, more specifically, organic mercury antiseptic (merthiolate), is now practically not used. And not because it is dangerous, but because people are so afraid of mercury that they have to make concessions to society in order to maintain a sufficient level of coverage.
Among the Russian childhood vaccines, merthiolate is found only in vaccines for pertussis, diphtheria and tetanus (complex and monovaccines); all other childhood vaccines do not contain it. But if you listen to activists, it seems that every dose of vaccine in a tablespoon of pure mercury.
Aluminum, more specifically, hydroxide and / or aluminum phosphate is a more common ingredient.
It is contained in the hepatitis B vaccine, whooping cough / diphtheria / tetanus and pneumococcal vaccine. This substance attracts the attention of the immune system at the injection site, increasing the effectiveness of vaccination. Without it, many vaccinations would be useless.
I would also like to say that aluminum is a light metal, not a heavy one. And in the form in which it is part of the vaccine, has a very low level of bioavailability. It is gradually metabolized and excreted from the body.
14. Vaccines contain foreign tissues and foreign DNA and RNA, which leads to suppression of the immune system due to a rejection reaction.
Vaccines contain antigens, preservatives, adjuvants, but not alien tissue.
Cell cultures of humans, mammals, and yeast cells are used for the production of a number of vaccines.
These cells are the substrate for growing the “active substance” of the vaccine. And as soon as they have completed their function, they are removed, proceeding to further purification of the solution from impurities.
The final product can contain only trace (non-determined by the methods of detection) concentrations of individual fragments of producer molecules. They are small and not immunogenic. It is like making beer. Yeast is a producer, which is removed with the help of sterilizing filtration, and they are not in the final product (if the beer is filtered, of course).
About the rejection reaction, to be honest, is not very clear. It sounds smart, but it doesn't make sense. Rejection of what? There is organ rejection after transplantation. Or if a person is transfused with unsuitable blood.
The autoimmune process means the immune response of the immune system against its own organism, and if the protein is foreign, then it is no longer an autoimmune process.
If intramuscularly with a vaccine enters the body a pair of "alien" molecules, they will simply be "eaten" by cells of the immune system, which does not affect the state of the vaccinated.
15. «Если чужеродный белок попадает в организм не через желудочно-кишечный тракт, а сразу в кровь, возникает возможность запуска аутоиммунной реакции. Таким образом, вводя в кровь вещества, не предназначенные для этого, мы не только обходим естественные тканевые барьеры, но и ошибочно запускаем защитные реакции, опасные для самого организма».
Вообще, многие вакцины имитируют естественный путь попадания патогена в организм.
Например, пероральная вакцина против полиомиелита принимается внутрь, чтобы стимулировать выработку антител в слизистой оболочке кишечника, поскольку именно здесь полиовирус размножается после попадания в организм с инфицированной пищей и водой. Оральная вакцина против холеры стимулирует локальную выработку а) нейтрализующих антител на слизистой кишечника, которые препятствуют прикреплению бактерий Vibrio cholerae к стенке кишечника, и б) антитела, предотвращающие связывание токсинов бактерий со слизистой оболочкой кишечника.
Интраназальное введение вакцин преследует ту же цель, но в слизистой оболочке полости носа.
Но остальные вакцины вводятся другими путями (внутрикожно, подкожно, внутримышечно) и этому тоже есть причина!
При первом контакте с диким вирусом, передающимся воздушно-капельным путем, частицы вируса вначале попадают на слизистую, где постепенно запускается работа локального иммунитета. Но, так как организм еще не знаком с этой инфекцией, он реагирует не сразу, и вирус успевает проникнуть во внутреннюю среду организма — в кровь и ткани.
Когда мы делаем прививку в виде инъекции, то мы пропускаем первый этап, моделируя экстренную ситуацию, когда «естественные барьеры организма» нарушены.
Такое введение помогает вакцинации быть максимально эффективной и минимизировать вероятность того, что она окажет неблагоприятное воздействие на организм.
Таким образом, важность прохождения всех барьеров организма преувеличена, так как мы «проводим учения» по худшему сценарию (worst case). И запускаем мы тем самым адаптивный иммунитет, точно такой же, какой будет запущен при контакте с диким вирусом, если тот прорвет оборону.
Вакцины никогда не вводят «прямо в кровь». Внутривенное введение запрещено. Это важно.
16. Инфекционные болезни, если в их течение не вмешиваются с антибиотиками и не подавляют лихорадку, способствуют созреванию иммунной системы и также представляют собой этап развития.
Инфекции обучают иммунную систему.
Как школьник, пришедший в первый класс, может видеть слова, но не может их прочесть, так и иммунная система «учится читать», встречаясь с различными патогенами.
В случае вакцинации мы проводим обучение в безопасных условиях. Мы же не пускаем новичка-канатоходца сразу под купол цирка. Вначале он тренируется держать равновесие в полуметре от земли с мягким матом для страховки.
Есть легкие болезни, а есть тяжелые. Нет никакого смысла вакцинировать от обычной ОРВИ, которая проходит за 7 дней.
Вакцинируют от тех заболеваний, которые тяжело протекают, имеют высокий риск осложнений, могут приводить к определенным последствиям.
Мы не надеваем наколенники и шлем своим детям, когда они просто идут по улице. Но если ребенок катается на роликах/коньках/гироскутере, мы понимаем риски падений и надеваем защитные средства. С инфекциями то же самое. Легкие инфекции действительно не представляют опасности и могут быть своеобразной тренировкой для иммунной системы. А вот тяжелые требуют «шлема и наколенников» — вакцинации в качестве защиты. Конечно, шлем и наколенники 100% гарантии не дадут, но очень значимо снизят риски травм (осложнений).
Болезни — это естественно и очень полезно для популяции, так как они истребляют слабых. Но редко кого из родителей интересует «здоровье нации». Его волнует здоровье его конкретного ребенка, и в данном случае вакцинация — более безопасная альтернатива.
Мифы о вреде вакцинации, распространяемые в сети — важная, но далеко не единственная проблема. «Другой неприятной проблемой является уровень квалификации медицинского персонала, который благодаря своему незнанию и неспособности ответить даже на многие простые вопросы зарождает в родителях сомнения относительно эффективности и безопасности вакцинации», — считает Обласова.
Антонина и ее коллега, автор другого пропрививочного блога «О прививках без истерик», Елена Савинова, планируют создать некоммерческую организацию, которая будет заниматься повышением грамотности как населения, так и медперсонала в вопросах вакцинопрофилактики — по их мнению, без должного внимания к этому вопросу ситуация может усугубиться.
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